Traffic Lanes not Separate Paths

I was surprised to be advocating for bike paths in my last letter to the editor. My position has been public since 1983, when I originated the Share the Road slogan and 3 foot separation with my prototype bike route sign. Bicycles are legal vehicles and belong on public roads, riding with traffic predictably and legally. Cyclists are safest riding in road lanes, not in separate but unequal paths and painted bike lanes. Motorists must also be trained to share the roads safely with all users. This requires education and uniform enforcement of traffic laws for all.
Effective educational programs, including graphic signs demonstrating legal passing, are the cheapest way to change habits. Unfortunately, even though mine was offered to the county for free, education was squeezed out by the engineering costs of paving and painting paths and lanes. My message has been ignored but never refuted for thirty years.
Many bicycle advocates believe paths and lanes will improve safety without evidence. They are implemented by traffic engineers who haven’t ridden since childhood. Most cyclists acquired dangerous habits then and only learn through ER visits or infrequent ticketing. Then they drive. Despite nearby bike lanes, these anarchlists endanger pedestrians by speeding on shared paths and sidewalks, or ride against traffic like upstream salmon.
Marin squandered a $25 million federal windfall, meant to increase non-motorized transportation, on paving a dozen miles of shared use paths, painting 8 miles of bike lanes, opening a thousand foot tunnel and laying 4 miles of sidewalks and crosswalks, (mostly painting crosswalks). Less than 4% was spent on “outreach, education and marketing.”
Commuting cyclists on these paths and lanes only increased by a few dozen per day since 2007. One Less Car benefits all, but pedestrians made six times more trips than cyclists. Walkers were shortchanged with obstructed sidewalks and paths shared with racing riders. The majority of bicycle trips are recreational using neighborhood roads, West Marin highways and off road trails. More miles were probably ridden indoors than outdoors in Marin. Bicycle pullouts on windy, narrow roads will get more use than the “green”way path sandwiched between Highway 101 and freight/SMART train tracks.
Non-adult riders and those with English as a second language, rarely ride legally and visibly. They are the most at risk from collisions with motor vehicles. All riders eventually have to Share the Road somewhere, and will be safer when drivers Look Twice for One Less Car.
What I actually proposed is far more radical, based on efficient and affordable use of public resources. In this case, the Highway 101 transportation corridor. Theoretically, the carrying capacity of a 12′ traffic lane, divided into three lanes of 10, 15 and 20 mph, is 5,000 riders an hour. An HOV lane would need five people per motor vehicle to rival this at 35 mph. Higher speed lowers capacity because following distances increase.
A billion dollars will be spent on the Marin Sonoma HOV lane for two people. A half billion on a complete SMART. Passenger train subsidies will suck funding from bus mass transit for decades. Only human powered transportation will reduce congestion, pollution and noise, while lowering health care costs from sedentary commutes.
It’s a radical idea, but so were “freeways” when Hitler’s engineers designed them in the 30’s to segregate faster motorists from the rabble. Our interstate systems were built for Defense. If global warming, obesity and traffic jams are threats to Marin’s future, let freeways be opened here first. Transportation discrimination is a civil rights issue.
As the most efficient form of transportation on the planet, bicycles can be more than dangerous toys ridden by traffic anarchists. Integrated into the mix, they will help Marinades save money, lose weight and really, reduce greenhouse gases.

Stephen Simac


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Betrayal of American Dreams

The Betrayal of the American Dream by Donald Barlett and James Steele is a historical analysis of the class warfare waged against the American middle class since the 70’s. This overwhelming insurgency by the myrmidons of Wall Street and global corporations eroded the wealth and stability gained by the working class after WWII. Considering the carbon footprint, resource squandering and pollution generation of this lifestyle, the American Dream was never environmentally sustainable. However, that was not why single minded business leaders and their paid for politicians relentlessly attacked it. They sought greater profits with lower taxes for the investor class and gained that incrementally and insidiously.
Although justifiable anger informs the duo’s writing, this is not simply a diatribe against the 1% by these investigative reporters for the Philadelphia Inquirer. They detail how the “elite have systematically rewritten the rules to take care of themselves at everyone else’s expense.” Global corporation owners funded brigades of pundits, politicians, economists and think tanks leading the charge for “free trade”, deregulation and eventual dissolution of the American Dream. Today “only the delusional believe” the 1950’s mantra that their children will have a better life than their parents. Only the advantaged children of the elite and the most driven few of the rest can hope to attend top colleges and prestigious universities, needed to build the social networks and resumes required to land jobs in higher income careers. Then you can die with the most toys.
While there are Republican and Democrat divisions in this crusade, they’ve regularly formed bipartisan ranks to storm the crumbling castles of soporific workers, resting on laurels seized by their union ancestors. The corporate revolt against the ascendancy of the American middle class has roots in the 50’s, when even JFK parroted the “serious” academics of his Harvard alma mater. Kennedy warned the nation against “the growing federal government”, voting with most of his Senate colleagues for tax cuts for the wealthiest, free trade measures, reduced domestic spending, military buildup, pro-growth and strong dollar economic policies. There was only a 5 o’clock shadow of difference between Nixon and JFK on economic policies in their 1960 campaigns. This philosophy emerged full blown later that decade with Milton Freidman heading the University of Chicago School of Economics.
Free trade meant removing tariffs and barriers on products manufactured overseas that competed with American made goods. But fair trade was never enforced by our legislators, ennabling the race to the bottom of low wage and unhealthy working conditions. Trade deficits soared while middle class industries were sucked dry. Each decade or so, new trade agreements and laws were enacted that encouraged multinationals to import more foreign made products and lay off union jobs in key blue collar industries. It began with lower value, high labor cost manufacturing jobs, stripping the garment and shoe industry of American workers with a giant sucking sound. Steel followed tool and die and plastics, then anything digitalized from software to medical imaging jobs fled overseas. Now, the very technological marvels of American imperialism, aero-space and computerized military hardware, are flying overseas.
This boosted profits, stock prices, executive compensation and investors’ dividends. They sheltered profits overseas and lobbied to jimmy a tax code that favors the interests of the elite, screw the middle class. Squash the poor. Under Bush the younger, the income gains of the 1% rose 62%, while that of the top tenth of one percent rose 94%. Finally by 2007, they swallowed the largest share of the national income since 1928. History repeated itself when the Great Recession imploded the housing bubble created from legislation and deregulation policies they had demanded.
Never mind that secure, middle class, manufacturing jobs were the foundation of the unprecedented growth of the American middle class after WWII. They provided millions of decent paying careers with pensions and medical insurance. Workers were able to buy suburban homes and two cars, raise children without skimping on food, toys and clothes, while saving for comfortable retirement. Stereotypically with only one parent working.
That all began to change in the late 60’s, but gathered steam in the 70’s and 80’s. This is a bipartisan class war. Democratic President Jimmy Carter pushed trucking and airline deregulation through a compliant congress, with the aid of Senator Ted Kennedy, lion of the poor. Carter signed the first deregulation bill of airlines in 1978. For a short time it lowered prices, increased competition and expanded routes. That didn’t last. The U.S. went from ten major airlines serving 90% of passengers to three covering 2/3rds in thirty years. Now even pilots are barely scraping by with no job security for any airline worker.
President Reagan and Prime Minister Thatcher of England championed deregulation with a fervor not seen since the Reformation Roundheads chopped off King James head. Reagan’s revolution also led the charge that killed secure pensions for 30% of retired workers, using the 1974 Employment Retirement Income Security Act, which caused the reverse. Congress “structured pension and retirement plan legislation to invite corporations to abandon their defined benefits plans in favor of defined contributions”, mainly 401 Ks that will never match the retirement income of pensions.
Pension funds were seized as excess assets through the 80’s and increasingly the 90’s, and sold off to pay debts accumulated by junk bond raiders and compensate them royally. After a million cuts, the death blow was delivered under George Bush, the younger. Now less than 3% have guaranteed pensions, and those could be gutted overnight with no repercussions to corporate owners.
Polaroid employees were given $47 checks when the company declared bankruptcy in 2003, with stock shares valued at nine cents. The company was snatched up by new investor owners that sold it for almost twice their purchase price two years later, reaping millions from shares now worth $12.
America’s trade deficit is approaching $10 trillion a year, with scrap paper and cardboard shipped to China being our largest export by volume. They recycle it to make boxes for the consumer products they make and ship back here.

The sociopathic chutzpah of the investing class rarely fails to appall. Bruce Sherman, a Florida money manager for the wealthy, made a small fortune managing larger ones. In 2005, he demanded changes of the management of Knight Ridder, the second largest newspaper chain in the country, owner of the Miami Herald, Philadelphia Inquirer and others. His 20% share in their stocks gave this journalist dilletante some weight, but they declined to kowtow to his whims.
He then ‘bullied the company” into selling itself off. Knight-Ridder caved, and was sold to a smaller media company that immediately sold venerable papers off the back of their sled to pay off the debt wolves they’d harnessed to buy it. Every paper in the chain has laid off staff, “killed pensions, frozen benefits, or taken other harsh measures to try to remain viable” under this debt. Sherman is doing just fine, retired to his 12,000 sq. ft penthouse in a luxurious gated community in Naples. Not bad for a sociopathic megalomaniac.
They’re not nattering nabobs of negativity naysaying, they offer solutions, lay out common sense polices that are rarely if ever heard in the mainstream press. First, make free trade fair trade, with reciprocal enforced parity in subsidies and protection. Working and environmental conditions must be equivalent and pay levels comparable to living costs.
Reform training policies and practices for those workers whose jobs are lost to fair foreign competition. Prosecute and jail Wall Street criminals for their actions during the “great swindle.”, otherwise “a pretty good definition of the ruling class: they can avoid the rules”, Too big to jail “triggered the largest economic collapse since the Great Depression.” Only government safety nets erected since then, kept it from being even more devastating.
Simplify the tax code by making all sources of income equal, wages, interest, dividends, rental, capital gains, royalties, grants and gifts, taxed at an increasing rate as the numbers climb. The current code taxes most heavily small business that operate entirely within the U.S., no tax havens or offshore profit pools enjoyed by multi-national large corporations. Lower income Americans already pay a larger share of their income to taxes and fees for government services. This expanded income tax would reverse wealth inequality trends that are steering us towards third world status.
These are critical for the rich as well, because their security and wealth is based on a middle class buying their products and place in the hierarchy.

Speed bumps, humps and tables.


Marin could slow traffic down with more speed bumps, bumps, lumps, and/or rumble strips. These “sleeping policemen” may not earn pensions and disability, but they’re universally hated. Motorists hate them and aggressively accelerate afterwards annoying nearby neighbors. Bicyclists are endangered by any surface irregularity. High speed driving defines emergency responders who reflexively oppose them.

Wider, speed humps are slightly less obnoxious than bumps, but speed tables are state of the art for traffic calming. These 10′ wide sloped ramps buttress a center crosswalk for pedestrians, while sidewalk bulb outs can narrow the drivable space. Not cheap, but neither are civil payouts for pedestrians hit in painted crosswalks. They ensure drivers will at least slow down, if not actually stop for crossers.. Some are made from recycled tires and can be temporarily installed for events.

Speed tables eliminate the suspension rattling from narrower humps, bumps and strips. An early law, (may still be on the books) required motorists to be led by a man with a red flag warning riders to hold their horses. It probably wasn’t uniformly enforced then either. Police routinely speed and half don’t wear seatbelts, so traffic deaths are their number one killer. Police enforcement of traffic behaviors is inefficient, arbitrary and expensive.

Safer speeds for every condition could be absolutely enforced with wireless control of engine computers from road signs. Most would welcome Big Brother, if it stopped speeders through their neighborhood with better cell phone reception while driving.

If a majority of accidents are from excessive speed and distracted driving, while a majority occur within a mile of home, some drivers must be speeding through their own neighborhood some of the time.

Enforcement or engineering solutions will always be more expensive than education. Speeding is both cultural and by design , people speed as a habit because they can. Detroit has increased horsepower while governments have built wider, smoother roads to accommodate them. Injuries and deaths have always been an externalized expense of motor vehicle manufacturers, who have virtually free reign to sell deadly .



Lose Weight, Save Money and Really Reduce Greenhouse Gases

The most practical way for Americans to lose weight, save money, reduce greenhouse gases and become healthier is to transform our transportation system into a human powered one. We will have to transform our transportation habits, whether willingly or pried out of our cold, dead hands. Unfunded infrastructure costs for roads, bridges and highways are greater than unfunded pension debts. They can’t even hope for booming stock market gains to pay for their maintenance. We can’t afford not to choose cheaper transportation options than trying to rebuild last century’s transportation infrastructure. If we admit that our forced dependence on motor vehicles has created a sick, isolated, obese society with crippling medical costs, unhealthy air, poisoned water, massive losses in property value, we might be able to envision a better choice for daily travel in the future. Historically bicycle and pedestrian facilities have been considered lucky to receive 1% of total transportation funding, even though they make several times that percentage of total trips. Contrary to popular belief, motorists’ taxes, fees and fines do not pay for motor vehicles’ entire public costs. Estimates vary how much motor vehicles needs are subsidized, mostly paid for with general funds and future indebtedness, because transportation is considered a common good, essential for commerce and the general welfare. By this standard cyclists and pedestrians are second class citizens, because their comfort and safety are seriously shortchanged. Cyclists are squeezed off to the side of the road or onto separate but unequal paths. Where they exist, sidewalks are obstacle courses of sign posts, bus stops, kamikaze cyclists, skaters and parked cars. It’s a wonder that anyone dares to bike or walk anywhere, and they’re not even allowed to use most, publicly funded “freeways.” We have eagerly handed over the keys to our cities and countryside to motor vehicles. Alternatives are basically shut out of transportation monies and their needs ignored by politicians, planners and engineers. Whenever some paltry improvement is made for them that impedes motor vehicle traffic or costs more than a pittance, drivers howl “they’re takin’ away our rights”, (meaning privilege). In this era of government cost cutting, transportation funding will be pared back and fees will increase. The costs of driving in the Great Recession will incentivize consumers to seek cheaper forms of conveyance. If they can safely utilize their own power for daily commutes, their health will improve, weight decrease and fitness increase. Measured in miles per kilocalorie of energy, humans on bicycles are the most efficient movement method on the planet. They’re simply too efficient and affordable to remain merely dangerous toys because of design and intent. Their needs for traveling on the public right of way will be most effectively and affordably met by education of both drivers and cyclists how to safely share existing roads. Standard bike lanes, paved shoulders and separate but unequal paths don’t reduce bicycle accidents. By shunting cyclists out of the traffic lanes, they threaten the full rights and responsibilities of cyclists as legal vehicles. It’s understandable that most cyclists don’t feel safe riding with motorists, but feelings aren’t fact. Some bicycle riders feel safer facing traffic, but they’re the most likely to collide with motor vehicles, especially at intersections when riding on sidewalks. Riding visibly in the traffic lane, following predictable and legal traffic behaviors is safer than using standard bike lanes, paved shoulders and separated paths. These place cyclists outside of drivers’ narrow focus on traffic lanes and support their belief that they own the road. These Class 1 and 2 bicycle facilities will never be extended over our entire network of roads. Better to spend those dwindling bicycle transportation funds on education and enforcement around sharing the road as legal vehicles to change dangerous driver and cyclist habits. SafetyCycles!, comfortable, recumbent tricycles with an electric engine assist, utilitarian vehicles with carrying capacity and an aerodynamic, weather and impact protected shell will begin to replace cars for lower income, younger, legally restricted, early adopters and/or eco-conscious transportation users. The CycleTrain!, human powered mass transit will speed along on rails embedded in roadways or on elevated monorails where necessary. Since most surface and wind resistance will be reduced, trains of fit cyclists will achieve highway speeds with normal pedaling. These will take public investment, however the costs will be minimal compared to conventional or high speed railways and motor vehicle traffic lanes. Any monies spent on improving sidewalks, paths, trails and pedestrian facilities will lower medical costs from the existential threat of America’s obesity epidemic. Walking has been the cheapest and healthiest form of transportation since we got up off our knuckles and deserves better promenades than the obstacle planted, narrow, uneven, cracked, and truncated sidewalks and footpaths unwillingly shared with errant cyclists, skaters, dog crap and even parked cars.

Bike Paths, Lanes, Signed Routes or Complete Streets?

motorist visual alert to look left and right at intersections

motorist visual alert to look left and right at intersections

Demanded a bike path to Broward Community College campus in an editorial for the student paper, The Phoenix. Mr. 11, 1977, “We have to realize that the future of the car is limited. It is too wasteful and polluting to be used in a world where the ecology and natural resources are rapidly going downhill.” I told you so is my journalist legacy.

Worked with Student Government Association to build support. Conferred with county engineers to price two miles of four foot wide asphalt path along SR 84, connecting lower speed, less trafficked roads to be designated as signed bike routes. Riverland Road and College Avenue. Came in at twenty grand for their machine that laid 4′ strips. (Probably cost a few million for standard 10-12′ width, now. More with an EIR.)

Used my mangled bicycle from recently being hit by a dozing driver as a prop to convince county commissioners to fund bike path In May, 1977. Commissioners voted unanimously to get bicyclists off dangerous road. Covered by the local newspapers before hearing, got brief sound bite for camera after approval. Watched with family on local news that night. Maybe ten seconds, definitely not fifteen.

SR 84 was the type of high speed road with few intersections where separate paths are safer, if properly designed and maintained. Speed limit was 55 mph. Most bicycle fatalities are on roads with 40 plus mph average speed.

Rode the poorly maintained path a few years later, flat tire from the broken glass shattered on it, covered with sand in places. Signs never put up on connecting bike route roads. (Fifteen years later that SR 84 path was paved over for I-585, Expressway to Everglades. Required to replace it by law, never did.)
Most traffic engineers then and now have little interest in providing affordable, efficient, clean, healthy human powered transportation. The profession has been focused on enhancing motor vehicle flow since its conception.

The problems with paths and the focus of bicycle activists on paving them became apparent forty years ago. Unfortunately, lessons learned have been lost. They’re expensive, thus scarce, primarily for recreation. Poor maintenance of paths and momentary inattention causes most common rider only crashes. Collisions with other cyclists, pedestrians, pets happen frequently. Cyclists are more likely to collide with motor vehicles at intersections where paths intermittently interact with traffic, because drivers are even less likely to see them outside the traffic zone and cyclists roll through in all clear’s mode.

Given up on separate but unequal bike paths, when first “Bike Day” was proclaimed by Broward County on Feb. 28, 1981, based on proclamation written and submitted by me as president (and sole member) of the Broward Bicycle Lobby. Bike to Work Week declared by Broward county and seven local cities for May 18-22,1981 in support of Lobby’s “fighting for bike lanes and routes”.

Bicycle acivists wanted our right to the road respected, preferably our own lane. Bicycle safety funding then was mostly for separate paths, mainly recreational routes. Standards for federal Class I bicycle facilities were 10-12′ wide paths, rarely met but far more expensive than bike lanes and signed routes,

Influenced by Dave Forester, certified in his Effective Cycling course, riding one afternoon in Miami during Dan Burden’s 1982 Bicycle Policy Convention weekend. Ride visibly, predictably, legally as traffic and fear not in the valley of the shadow of death. Although Florida statute claimed that “every person riding a bicycle upon a roadway shall be granted all the rights and be subject to all the duties applicable to the driver of a vehicle”, same strategy seemed less safe than in California and Massachusetts where Forester rode.

Mean streets back then. Cyclists routinely yelled at, “ride on the sidewalk”, “get off the road”, honked at furiously, bottles thrown in front of, death threats and attacks. Plenty of invisible collisions, too.

Entitled drivers, clueless police, anarchist cyclists following their own traffic drummer. Dangerous mix. Began organizing second class citizens to fight for civil rights and equality like other outsider groups with Broward Bicycle Lobby. A few cycling advocates met and discussed how to claim our right to the road. Occasional kooks.

As chairman of Bicycle Advisory Committee for Broward County 1981-83. wrote first draft of legislation requiring any new, widened or repaved roads to include FDOT approved bicycle facilities. Priority Bike Lanes or Signed Routes. Wrote an anti-automobile rant published as op-ed in the Ft. Lauderdale News, March 6, 1983, after collision with sausage truck. Instead of spending billions on subsidizing motor vehicle traffic, “we could rebuild railroad tracks, buy buses and trams, install bicycling lanes and sidewalks for walkers, and encourage ride sharing for far less cost and greater return on getting people from one place to another.” Early Velorutionary rant.

Learned that bike lanes have their own hazards, obstructions, confusion where they end, at intersections, the tendency of motorists to use them for passing, turning right, parking or opening doors into. Pedestrians stepping off sidewalks. Usually it’s only a painted line. Segregation with painted lines can’t stop a distracted driver. Placing cyclists outside drivers focus on traffic lane makes them less visible. Statistics are scrimpy, but simply adding bike lanes is not  necessarily safer than riding with slower speed traffic sharing  the lane. Education funding and programming gets squeezed out by the expense of  paving separate paths or lanes.  Paint may be cheap, but  separating bike lanes with barriers that block cars from using them is not.

After half a decade of lobbying for separate bike paths then bike lanes, realized in 1982 that educating riders, pedestrians and motorists how to share the road safely is the most economical, effective and rapid route to improving safety and traffic courtesy.

Created the first Share the Road /Bike Route sign to educate both cyclists and drivers directly. Friend Tom Andrew, sign maker extraordinaire, designed graphic of bicyclist and motor vehicle with three feet clearance. Printed one sign on county transportation department blank summer, 1982.

Intended to educate salmon cyclists not to ride against the current. Drivers to allow an arm’s length clearance. Both to expect and accept the rights and responsibilities of Sharing the Road. Cyclist in traffic lane, motorist passing safely.

A non-threatening aphorism, meant to calm the waters. Share The Road as bicycle safety mantra was coined from discussion and readings. Image based on sign seen in Germany in 1980.

This sign intended for installation along designated bike routes; roads chosen for 14′ curb lane width or scenic routes with lower speed limits. Discovered that the official symbol, the headless horseman, a riderless bicycle crossing traffic, must be used when project funded with Federal Department of Transportation (FDOT) monies. Exceptions can be granted through a tortuous process beyond my skill set. Visionary/Activist Not Bureacrat.

Screwed it to garage wall. Behind me in photo for Ft. Lauderdale News article. Sent letter with sign photo to Bicycle Forum, #10, summer 1983 issue published by Dan Burden. Explained the safety benefits and cost savings of signed bike routes over lanes and paths. “One of the problems has been the lack of a good standard sign that shows both cyclists and motorists what to expect on” roads designated as bike routes.

Went viral without attribution. Share the Road went national without credit or cash. The graphic has been copied or influenced other versions, an internet image search turned up a few dozen close variations. At least one copied the German sign because the cyclist was still on the left.

Twenty three states have since passed mandatory 3′ clearance bicycle passing laws, including Florida and California. Not one has yet changed their signs. Marin county, CA uses two signs, a standard Headless Horseman on one and Share the Road on the other, County transportation has never responded to my offer of free use of one that would cost half as much and show how. Does traffic behavior change because of signs? Not unless the graphic shows them how.

Share the Road was a meme ready to travel nationally, but went into hibernation. The great lull in bicycle safety planning and design of the Reagan Republican years. All these lessons learned and battles fought have been forgotten by the present generation of bicycle activists and traffic enginees. Bike lane lines and sharrow signs are being re-painted in cities and suburbs across the land. Paths are paved to nowhere in particular.

There are some full lane, barrier protected bike lanes being built in New York City. Not without controversy or opposition. Results are still not in, but few cities will surrender that much motor vehicle space to bicyclists. Engineers are designing barrier separated bi-directional bike lanes crossing intersections. Predictable results from motorists failing to yield to invisible salmons riding against flow.

The battle for actually sharing the traffic lane with motor vehicles has been abandoned as not feeling safe enough without a painted line.

Activists are again demanding separate paths and specially marked bike lanes. What our generation fought for, shed blood for, offered martyrs, the Lost Generation, has seemingly been abandoned without awareness of what’s been given up.

Cyclists riding legally and visibly with traffic on roads with lower speed limits are safer than on separate paths or in segregated lanes. Drivers and Cyclists have mostly learned these lessons, if reluctantly and unevenly.

Now it will be back to “ride on the path, use the lane” no matter what hazards they present. The majority of cyclists who must use the vast majority of roads that never will have lanes, signs or paths will be safer with drivers willing to share the road at lower speeds.

Traffic Culture is learned locally and individually, but best practices and habits can spread widely and rapidly through public education. Midwifing the birth of Share the Road, even though actual sign languished for thirty years, is history forgotten without blog/memoir.

Changing the most dangerous behaviors through education can reduce collisions and particularly hazardous habits. In 2005, reworked the Share the Road/Bike Route sign for educational graphic. Then designed Look Twice for One Less Car graphic to direct motorists to see bicyclists riding with traffic and also look right for pedestrians. Common collision causes covered.

Calming traffic through visual, physical and psychological tactics is more effective and less expensive than sporadic enforcement. Education of drivers, cyclists and pedestrians on basic safety guidelines for safer, less stressful streets can create a slow traffic culture.

Changing behaviors is more affordable than enforcement, and more rapidly implemented than engineering approaches. Appropriate measures in these fields are needed, but their expense can easily crowd out education funding.

Focusing on education and traffic calming practices is the best way to achieve greater bicycle and pedestrian safety. Seemingly futile effort to clue this generation in to the lessons of the past. Regularly write letters to engineers, activists, politicians, editors, columns where given space, websites, FaceBook to educate through analysis. Rarely get responses because activists, politicians and engineers seem wedded to paving separate and unequal paths and widening roads with segregated lanes. Moving on to prophesying Complete Streets with enclosed electric motor assisted tricycles, human powered transit the monorail Cycle Train and Bicycle Buses. Hopefully not thirty years ahead of my time this time around.